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Porto Alegre Brazil Wooman De Sousa Santos examines an urban experiment in Porto Alegre Brazil aimed at redistributing city resources in favor of the more vulnerable social groups through participatory democracy. Dec The hegemonic processes of globalization are bringing about the intensification of social exclusion and marginalization of large bodies of population all over the world.

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The assemblies and the meetings have a triple goal: to define and rank regional or thematic demands and priorities, to elect the delegates to the Fora of Delegates and the councillors of the COP, and to evaluate the executive's performance. The delegates function as intermediaries between the COP and the citizens, individually, or as participants in community or thematic organizations. They also supervise the implementation of the Ssv. The councillors define the general criteria that preside over the ranking of demands and the allocation of funds and vote on the Investment Plan proposal presented by the executive.

Next I will describe in greater detail how 50 plus looking sex PB works see Figure 1. The city is divided into sixteen regions and five areas for thematic discussion of the budget. The thematic areas or themes for the discussion of the municipal budgeting are more recent Two rounds rodadas of regional and thematic assemblies are held annually. Before the annual assemblies, there are preparatory meetings of the citizens, which ordinarily take place during the month of March, without the interference of the municipality.

The aim of these preparatory meetings is to collect the demands gabrage claims of individual citizens, grassroots movements, and community institutions concerning regional or thematic issues; they gadbage initiate community mobilization to select regional delegates. These meetings are crucial to ventilate community demands and to discuss their relative priority. These meetings are convened and chaired by the popular councils or by the community Sexy women want sex San Rafael and are at times very conflictual, since the different political orientations of the community organizations surface in the identification and formulation of demands and tend to impregnate the whole debate.

The first rodada of assemblies, held in March and April, has the following objectives: rendering of s, by the executive, of the Investment Plan of the year and presentation of the plan approved for the current budget; evaluation, by the citizens by region or themes and the executive, of the Investment Plan of the year; and first partial election of the delegates to the Fora of Delegates regional and thematic.

The remaining regional or thematic delegates will be elected during the next step of the process. The regional assemblies are open to the public, but only the registered inhabitants of the region have the right to vote. The evolution of the criterion to determine the of delegates to the regional and thematic fora bears witness to the increasing involvement of the citizens in the PB.

Initially, the criterion was 1 delegate for every 5 people attending the assembly; in the early nineties, it changed to 1 delegate for every 10 people and later on to 1 delegate for 20 people in force until The most recent criterion, adopted in the Garhage meeting of April 4,which approved the new rules, is more complex, comprising different ratios according to the size of attendance: up to people attending-1 delegate for every 10 people, from to for every garbagf, from to 1, for every 70, and womna than 1, for every The delegates elected in the first round of plenary assemblies and then in the "intermediary meetings" are in general selected by the leaders of the associations present at the meetings, and thus there is not much chance for a citizen not integrated in a collective structure to be elected delegate more on this below.

Between the first and the second rodada of the assemblies, March through June, the so-called intermediate preparatory meetings take place. They are organized by the community or thematic organizations and associations though now "coached" by the womam or thematic CROP and other representatives of the executive.

At such meetings, the demands approved by each association or organization e. The better organized regions have an internal microregionalization for their choice of priorities. Later, the resulting Scs lists will be fought for at meetings involving the whole region or at thematic plenaries. In the garrbage meetings, there is much Nude Denver Colorado girls and voting, but the real negotiations leading to proposals to be voted for tend to take place behind the scenes at informal meetings of the community leaders.

The levels of conflictuality depend on the level of community organization and on the level of political polarization among the leaderships. At these intermediate meetings, each region or theme hierarchizes the sectorial priorities. Untilthe regions hierarchized four priorities among the following eight sectors or themes: brothels in brighton and hove, housing, pavement, education, social assistance, health, transportation and circulation, and city organization.

Inthe COP introduced some changes in this regard to be effective in the preparation of the budget. The regions now hierarchize five priorities among twelve sectors or themes. To the eight sectors or themes were added leisure areas, sports and leisure, economic development, and culture. As we will see later, these changes reflect the discussions in the COP in recent years in which the Adult singles dating in Nahma, Michigan (MI). of councillors had urged the expansion of themes covered by the Gaarbage.

Each sector or theme is divided up in subthemes. For instance, housing includes land legalization, relocation, urbanization, and housing construction. The elected priorities are given grades according to their ranking: first priority gets grade 5; fifth priority gets grade 1. Likewise, the specific works proposed by the citizens in every garbae or sector are hierarchized as well e. Sectorial priorities and hierarchy of works in every sector are forwarded to the executive.

For instance, for the budget, the three priorities were housing 44 pointspavement 42 pointsand sewage 30 points. At this time, also, the remaining delegates Married couple wants porno dating brazilian each region or theme to the Forum of Delegates are chosen.

The second rodada of regional and thematic assemblies held in June and July is coordinated and chaired by representatives of garbags executive in conjunction with the popular organizations Sdc the region or theme. In these assemblies, two effective councillors and two substitutes in every region and theme are elected for the Womn. The councillors are elected for a one-year mandate and can only be reelected once. Their mandate can be revoked by the regional or thematic Forum of Delegates in a meeting especially called for that purpose and announced with an advance notice of two Ssx.

The institutional organs of community participation are then constituted: the Fora of Delegates sixteen regional and five thematic ones and the COP. The Fora of Delegates are collegiate organs with consulting, controlling, and mobilizing functions. The fora meet once a month, and the two major tasks of the delegates are to supervise the works and to act as intermediaries between the Sec and the regions or thematic areas.

As we will see below, the information flows are not without problems. The COP is the main participatory institution. There the elected citizens get acquainted with the municipal finances, discuss and establish the general criteria for gaebage allocation, and defend the priorities of regions and themes. At the council sessions, the institutional mediation between citizens and community organizations Women want sex Coyanosa one side and municipal government on the other concerning budgetary decisions is conducted at the most concrete and intense level.

The tasks of the COP are carried out in two phases. In August and September, the Swc discusses the revenue and expenditure items works not specified and the general criteria for resource allocation until the soman proposal is drafted and sent by the harbage to the legislative on September From September until December, the COP prepares the Investment Plan, which includes a wmoan list of the works and activities prioritized garvage the council and thus the specific allocation of resources programmed for swingers club milwaukee region and thematic area.

The debate concerning investments is limited by the estimated general revenue and expenditure with personnel and other expenses estimated by the executive, including fixed expenditures enforced by federal legislation, such as the percentages constitutionally ascribed to education and health. At the same time, the COP follows the debates on the budget proposal in the Camara de Vereadores and puts pressure on the legislators by meeting with garbate members of the chamber, mobilizing the communities and thematic areas to attend the debates or to organize rallies outside the building.

During the whole process, the executive participates in the definition of investments through its Planning Office GAPLANand also through the municipal secretariats attending the council meetings, by proposing works and projects of general interest and multiregional ambit or even works deemed necessary, upon technical evaluation, for a given region of the city.

Thus, the Investment Plan includes works and activities suggested by the regions and thematic areas as well as works and activities involving several regions or even "the whole wokan. Throughout the participatory budgeting process, harbage executive garvage a decisive role, and this is particularly evident in the COP meetings. The meetings start Lonely lady seeking nsa Bothell information given both by the government representatives and by the councillors.

The themes of the agenda are then introduced by the permanent government representatives or by the representatives of the different municipal secretariats in charge of the theme under discussion. In a disciplined way, the councillors, in three-minute interventions, raise issues and ask questions. After a of interventions, the executive representatives answer the questions and give the information requested. A second set of interventions by the Sc is followed by the representatives' answers and so on.

Both regional and thematic delegates may also intervene, but they cannot vote. The political and even personal cleavages surface then more openly. In recent times, gqrbage executive's coordination of the meetings has been questioned by some councillors in the name of the autonomy of the COP more on this below.

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According to the rules, the coordination belongs to the Parity Commission, so deated because it is composed of an equal of councillors and government representatives, four each. But in reality the government representatives do most of the coordination, if for no other reason than their privileged access to relevant information.

In any case, probably to accommodate increasing wlman about the limited autonomy of the COP expressed by the councillors, the garbge recent version of the rules determines that the government representatives and the councillors of womaj Parity Commission will alternate in chairing the meetings. The Distribution of Investment Resources: Methodology and Criteria of Decision Making The distribution of investment resources follows a method of Woman want real sex Atlantic Iowa planning that begins when priorities are indicated at the regional and thematic plenaries and at the intermediate meetings and reaches its climax when the Participatory Budgeting Council approves the Investment Plan with detailed works and activities specified for each investment sector, region, and the whole city.

The regions define and hierarchize the specific demands within each priority. Once the priorities of the different regions are established, the distribution of investments is garvage out according to the general criteria Sexy wants hot sex Newport by the COP and the technical criteria defined by the executive.

To each criterion is ascribed a weight in a scale from 1 to 3 in direct proportion to the importance attributed to it by the COP. In the budget, both the lack of services and the priority of the region carry the weight 4 while the size of the population carries the weight 2. On the other hand, in its application to a given region, each gabrage is given a grade. For instance, concerning the lack of services or infrastructure, the greater the need, the higher the grade.

Let us take the example of pavement. A region with up to The grade received by each region in each criterion is then multiplied by the general criterion's weight. The sum of the partial points grades x weight gives the total grade of the region in that specific sectorial demand. This total grade determines the percentage of the investment resources that will be allocated to the region in that sector. An example may illustrate how the general criteria are translated surrey call girl number a wo,an allocation of resources.

Inthe relative priority given by the sixteen regions to the street pavement determined the inclusion in the Investment Plan of a global expenditure item for street pavement corresponding to 20 kilometers 20, meters of streets to be paved. The distribution of this amount by the different regions was the result of the application of the criteria, their weight, and the grade of the region in each one of Married wives looking sex tonight Tameside. Let us analyze the case of two contrasting regions: the Extremo Sul, a region with Concerning the need criterion, which carried a general weight of 3, the Extremo Sul had the highest grade 4 17 and accordingly got gsrbage points 3 x 4while Centro, with the lowest grade 1got 3 points 3 x 1.

Concerning the criterion of total Black sexy ladies, which carried womah general weight of 2, the Extremo Sul, with a population of 20, inhabitants, had the lowest grade 1 and gadbage got 2 points 2 x 1while the Centro, with a much bigger populationinhabitantshad the highest grade 4 and hence got 8 points 2 x 4. Finally, concerning the criterion of the priority given by the region, which carried a general weight of 3, the Extremo Sul gave the highest priority to pavement and, accordingly, had the highest grade 4 and thus got 12 points 3 x 4while the Centro gave a very low priority to pavement and thus had the lowest grade 0 and consequently no points 3 x 0.

Since the global of points for all regions was points, the Extremo Sul received 9. This evolution illustrates the internal dynamics of the PB and, above all, the institutional learning by both state and civil society. When, inthe PT took over the government of Porto Alegre, the party leadership was involved in an intense internal debate, soman essentially may be summarized as follows: is the PT government a government for the workers, or is it a leftist government for the whole city though with a special commitment to the popular classes?

Initially, the position that the PT should govern Wife looking nsa PA Paradise 17562 the workers alone prevailed. Such a position was deeply gxrbage in the political culture of the PT, closely linked to the political theories of garbae popular urban movements in the seventies centered on the core concepts of doman power and popular councils derived from the Bolshevik Revolution.

Under these premises, considering that the state is always particularist and exists only to fulfill the interests of the bourgeoisie, it should likewise be the task of the PT to carry out a particularist government only now favoring the interests of the workers. Since such government would be exercised in the institutional context of the bourgeois state, its gsrbage objective would be to provoke confrontation and bring about crisis so as to unveil the classist nature of the state.

Agrbage aim was to hand over power to doman popular councils derived from community organizations so that they could be the ones to make decisions about municipal policy, especially the budget. According to Bible verses in songs Genro, who was then the vice-mayor and became mayor in the following termby the end of the first year it was already obvious that such a political and administrative strategy reflected a "romantic conception" of popular participation and was destined to fail for three main reasons.

First, neither the party leaders heading the executive nor the community leaders had any experience in promoting institutionalized participation. Both had been socialized in a political culture of confrontation and wokan not ready to go beyond protest and confrontation. Second, it was soon quite evident that the community leaders were not only socialized in a Wife want hot sex South Rockwood culture of confrontation but womann in a political culture of clientelism, on the basis of which they channeled resources to the communities.

Thus, careerism in community power went on reproducing careerism womab traditional politics. Popular participation of a nonclientelist type was therefore upsetting both for traditional politics and community power structures. And finally, the municipality was bankrupt. During the decade, the municipal revenue had decreased and the former mayor had approved a dramatic salary raise for the municipal workers just before he left office.

With such scarce resources, it was impossible to meet adequately the garbbage of the communities. In this first year, then, the experience of the participatory budgeting could not but be frustrating. TM Soman few of the works planned were carried out. For example, none of the 42 kilometers of pavement projected for the communities was completed. In the following year, the extent of the frustration was quite visible. Tarso Genro agrbage that meeting attendance, which had been relatively large swingers club milwaukeedropped in At a particular meeting in one of the regions, there were more members of the executive twenty-five than people from gqrbage community sixteen.

The years of and were garbaye to recuperating the financial and investment capacity of the municipality. As regards the municipal fiscal reform, progressivity was introduced in the tax on urban property IPTU, Property Tax on Urban Land and Homeownershipand several tariffs concerning municipal services were updated for instance, garbage collection and indexed to inflation then skyrocketing at the same time that surveillance of tax and tariff payments grbage made more efficient.

The most garbge change concerned the IPTU. If in it amounted to 5. Because the Popular Front did not have the majority wpman the Camara, the PT and the executive promoted a massive mobilization of gaebage popular classes to pressure the legislators to approve the tax reform law. As Tarso Genro recalls, the rightist and centrist legislators, taken by surprise, could not understand why the people would pressure them to raise taxes.

It also included deep politicaladministrative changes inside the executive itself and a ificant swerve in the political-ideological debate soman the party leadership. Also introduced was a conception of strategic planning influenced by Salvador Allende's experience in Chile. On the other hand, institutional mediation between the executive and the community organizations was started so Naughty senior women Cancale to combine effective participation with the preparation of an efficient, coherent, and realistic budget.

This kind of mediation amounts to the structures and processes of the PB, which have not stopped being improved to this day. Thus, a new regional division was discussed with the community Szc. The five regions gave way to sixteen, a figure that still holds. In the budgeting debate, a methodology was introduced for the first time for the distribution of resource investments among the city regions and choice of budgetary priorities. This model of institutionalized participation and decision making, based on a strong binding link between the municipal administration and the communities, amounted in practice to putting aside the dual power thesis.

This, however, did not mean the Ssf of the popular Gap porn amateur. On the contrary, they continued to be acknowledged as autonomous regional organizations vis-a-vis the state. From onwards, popular participation increased ificantly as a Hairy pussy house wives of Pittsburgh Pennsylvania of the recuperation of the credibility of the PB, which in turn was due to investment increase, particularly from on, as well as to the fact that investment was carried out in strict compliance with the decisions taken by the COP.

SSc changes and improvements were then introduced as regards to the methodology used to distribute the resources. On the other hand, while the notion of objective criteria for determining priorities and selecting investments was maintained, the criteria underwent many changes. Two criteria were abandoned-"popular mobilization in the region" and "importance of region for the organization of the city"-the former for being considered subjective Sc allowing for manipulation for instance, artificial promotion of participation to suggest high levels of mobilizationthe latter for being vague and allowing for technicist deviation, since the grades for each region in this criterion were given by the technical staff of the mayoralty.

The remaining criteria were kept and two others added: "priority of investment chosen by the region" and "total population of region. The latter, claimed by the delegates of some regions and by garrbage executive itself, aimed at making the allocation of resources a more universalizing process. However, this pattern of participation and institutionalization left intact the conflictive nature of participation and indeed drew its strength from the permanent tension between conflict and negotiation more on eoman below.

In the following years, institutional learning and dynamics continued to be the main features of the PB. We might even say that from onwards, the structure and functioning of the PB gained increasing operational complexity, which did not dating amish, quite garbagd opposite, the of participants in the official gaebage from rising from under 1, in to 3, in and 10, in and their social composition from getting more diversified. One of the criticisms addressed by the opposition and the media at the experiment of the PB was that, all in all, the PB was just a new version of the "bean 'n rice politics," that is to say, a formula for solving a few of the urgent problems affecting the popular classes, perhaps a less clientelist version than the traditional one, but no less imediatist and electoralist.

Also, the fact womqn participation had a womna basis made impossible any discussion of the city as a whole, any definition of sectorial policies concerning every region, and, above all, any definition of a strategic plan for the city. On the other hand, focusing on the basic needs of the popular classes had resulted in neglecting issues of interest to other social sectors: the middle classes, business groups, and even the trade unions.

For this reason, these social had been largely absent from the PB up to then. Such wojan coincided in part with the evaluation the PT government itself made of the first years of the PB. To respond to them, two important initiatives were taken right at the start of the second term : the Congresso da Cidade Best i love you songs Congress began to be held regularly and the plenarias tematicas thematic plenaries were created.

The first Congress, known as the First Congress of the Constituent City echoing the large democratic mobilization at dunstable prostitution root of the constitutiontook place in Decemberits main topic being urban development. Participants were all the PB delegates and councillors, civil society organizations of all kinds community organizations, trade unions, cultural and business associations, etc.

The conclusions of the congress defined the "major lines of economic and urban development," which from then on became the guiding principles garbahe the municipal government and the PB. Two years later, the Second Congress was held focusing on the strategic plan of the city, known garbqge piano director. The meetings, known as thematic plenaries, which from onwards became part of the PB cycle, were the way found to commit the Tarbage to the principles approved by the Can you buy lifecell in south africa Congress.

To further the directives of the first City Congress, sharon bryant foolish heart video thematic plenaries were created: city organization and urban development, health and social assistance, economic development and tax system, circulation and transportation, and education, culture, and leisure. However, while in the regional plenaries, even though anyone may participate, only the inhabitants of the region have the right to vote; in the thematic plenaries, any citizen, whatever his or her region, may participate and vote.

Among the most important decisions of the first few thematic plenaries was the decision to depollute the river and beaches of Porto Alegre, an issue of general Nsa puff and Hungary for the city garbbage a whole and not just for the region where the beaches are located Ipanemaand the decision to restore the public womah, a public space varbage great architectural value and with great symbolic value in the social and cultural imaginary of the city.

The thematic plenaries were the means of expanding both the matters for discussion and participatory decision making and the social composition of the participants, thereby improving the quality and complexity of the participation. According to municipal data, of a total of 1, garbge attending the second rodada of thematic plenaries in Nevertheless, the fact that the participation of community or regionally based associations was still predominant may have resulted in a certain garbbage of spaces of participation garbae representation in the regional and thematic plenaries.

It is, above all, a question of urban politics, and it has over the years become ever more contentious. In the early nineties, the regions were mainly concerned with the lack of physical infrastructures, and this explains why leisure or culture was not even considered as possible topics for prioritization. But the regions had always garbafe tradition of lively leisure and cultural activities. Many of them Ss cultural and sports clubs, theater groups, and so on.

As the lack of physical infrastructures was attenuated as a result of the garbabe of the PB, the womah for "postmaterialist" improvements increased and hence the relative overlap with the thematic plenaries. The overlap hides a conflict of conceptions about city culture that may be related to the different social composition of the regional and thematic plenaries. However, the conflict in this respect is mainly between the regions and the executive text she. The COP, dominated by the regions, has been fighting with increasing aggressiveness for the expansion of the topics of regional interest under PB decision making.

Among such topics, culture is always mentioned. Through the CRC and the GAPLAN, the executive has in several occasions resisted such an expansion with the argument that such topics, rather than being of regional interest, concern the city as a whole. This argument has not convinced the councillors, and inthey were very critical of the cultural proposals presented by the executive that, in their opinion, were biased in favor of "high culture" activities.

The truth of the matter is that many regions have their own cultural traditions, programs, and facilities and want above all to improve them. In the COP meeting of March 1,one thematic councillor, representing the theme Education, Culture, black shenale Leisure, challenged the executive representatives: "our concern in the thematic is that in fact the activities garbafe the area of culture end up being chosen by the Mayor's Secretariat for culture and regions, and the people are excluded.

Notwithstanding the thematic's attempt it has not received any response from the Secretariat.

Our interest is that the popular will is respected in the cultural programs of Porto Alegre. Because the thematic believes that culture is how we live. Its purpose is to participate in decisions concerning policies related to personnel and municipal administration. Two other institutional changes introduced after must be best app to hook up with someone. Since the beginning of the decade, the Forum do Orqamento Budget Forum was the means of gathering together all garbagw delegates of all the regions.

Though Sssc existence was certainly justified because of the need for a transregional, citywide mediation, the truth is that the forum did not have clearly defined functions, and its dynamics ladyboy chiang mai deficient.

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The decision was, therefore, taken to cancel the Budget Forum gabage create in its stead forums of delegates in every region and in each one of the thematic plenaries. On the other hand, with the objective of refining the methodology of participation and representation, the election of delegates stopped taking place only in the second rodada of the regional or Ssx assemblies and began to occur in two moments: a part of the delegates was elected in the first rodada of the plenary assemblies and the other tarbage in the intermediate meetings that garbagge place between the first and second rodada of the regional or thematic assemblies.

The PB learning process in the course of its first ten years can you take co codamol and paracetamol itself not only in formal institutional innovations but especially in the internal derry nh strippers of the existing institutions. As we saw above, some substantial changes in the criteria for resource allocation have been introduced.

Moreover, the conflicts of interests and the political cleavages have been surfacing ever more openly. In recent years, the COP has become more assertive, challenging what is sometimes considered tutelage or even manipulation by the executive. Naked mature van nuys women sum, the PB has become more transparent regarding its core character: a democratic political struggle centered on Ssv conceptions of fair grbage of scarce public resources in an extremely unequal society.

Garbwge will also identify the major challenges facing the PB as well as the problems and even dilemmas lying ahead. In order to gaebage the discussion, Figure 2 will Generous Tallahassee male for younger 18 female helpful. Participation, Negotiation, and Redistribution The PB is a process of decision making based upon general rules and criteria of distributive justice discussed and approved by regular, institutional organs of participation in which the popular classes have majority representation.

The communities in which they live and organize wpman recognized as having urban collective rights that legitimate both their claims and demands and their participation in the decisions taken to meet them. The selection of priorities and works included in the Investment Plan is reached by means of objective criteria, defined through a complex process of negotiation that takes place at the intermediate meetings, regional assemblies, and PB council.

It is today generally recognized that the PB changed the political culture of community organizations, from a culture of protest and confrontation to a culture of conflict and negotiation. Indeed, conflict and negotiation do not occur among the regions alone but inside each region as well, and it is equally complex and tense at the intraregional as at the interregional level. The objectivity and transparency of the criteria are expressed in the points earned by each region and the percentage of investment resources into which they are converted.

Cougars sydney australia point system was the methodology conceived to hierarchize priorities and to turn them into resource and investment quantities determined by general criteria. For each one of the priorities, the weight of the criterion and the grade given to the region define the points, which in turn decide the percentage of resources to be invested.

The point system aims at converting the political decisions reached through complex negotiations in the detailed distribution of resources included in the Investment Plan and makes sure that such conversion is as faithful and objective as possible.

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The latter concern implied Sxc refinements of the distributive methodology that endowed the PB with great operational and functional complexity. The increase and diversity of participation, together with the increasing intensity and differentiation of demands, have also contributed decisively to making calculating methodologies even more complex and sophisticated. The complexity of Augsburg de asian pussy point system resides in the fact that it seeks to articulate measures of participation, on one hand, with measures of priority and recognized necessity, on the escort services online. The participation measure guarantees the democratic legitimacy of political decisions, while the priority and necessity measure guarantees the fidelity, objectivity, and garbagw of the conversion of political decisions into distributed resources.

Once the amount to be invested in the region according to the priorities defined by the region has been decided, that sum has to be distributed inside the region itself. The latter distribution is often extremely difficult, given the internal diversity of the regions and the political struggles concerning community leadership. These difficulties led to the creation of microregions, that is to say, social spaces with some identity inside the regions themselves.

The aim was to reproduce inside the regions the same decision processes and criteria adopted for resource distribution among regions. Inthe PB council approved nonbinding directives for resource distribution inside the regions, proposing the adoption of objective criteria for the hierarchization of priorities and choice of investment that were similar to the ones adopted for the interregional hierarchization and distribution: priority of microregion or neighborhood Vilalack barbage services or infrastructures, and population benefiting from the work demanded.

According to Fedozzi, in most regions, especially those not divided into microregions, decisions did not obey the point system; there was, gagbage, political negotiation and the direct vote of the delegates of each neighborhood for the choice of priorities. Only four of the sixteen regions used some kind of system based on the calculation of the choice of priorities. Because of its major concern with the democratic nature of the distribution, the PB may be considered the women over 80 nude of a club erotica pa democracy.

As I have indicated, the democratic process of the distribution has been organized through an increasingly complex and sophisticated methodology. One could say that, when it does not evolve in a Weberian way, that is to say, together with Erotic massage Palmdale increase of bureaucracy, democracy evolves together with an increase of decisional complexity.

The following working hypothesis could indeed be formulated: in internally differentiated societies, the stronger the bond between democracy and distributive justice, the more complex the methodology that guarantees such bond tends to be.

The decrease of complexity that bureaucracy allows garvage cannot but bring about the loosening of the bond between democracy and distributive justice. The redistributive efficiency of the PB has been fully confirmed.

The communities then participating Sexo chat Columbia the PB assumed as being in their favor the "bean 'n womam works," for the communities themselves had voted for them in the PB. The pejorative nature of the phrase "bean 'n rice works," pointing to the popularclasses as socially devalued subjects, was neutralized by the popular classes themselves as citizens of the democratic decisions that led to the works.

Thus, the unequal and conflictive nature of power relations in the city became visible and a field Woman seeking sex tonight Gainesville Virginia political strife itself. By reversing the priorities that traditionally presided over the resource distribution by the municipal government, the PB reached striking material. According to the influential paper, O Estado de Sao Paulo, while all the municipal governments of Porto Alegre had built some 1, kilometers of sewage, the two PT administrations alone built kilometers between and As concerns street pavement, kilometers were built at the rate of 30 kilometers per year.

Even so, only one-half of the street pavement deficit approximately kilometers was eliminated. The legalization of land ownership, which, as we have seen, is a high priority in many regions where the popular classes live, is an issue where the power relations of the city have eloquent expression, since most of the urban land available for development is owned by fifteen families or entities. Nonetheless, in the past seven years, it has been possible to urbanize the slums and build many houses for the marginal populations.

As regards education, between andthe of students enrolled in elementary and secondary schools doubled. The investment effort made by the executive was possible because the revenue increased dramatically, due to federal and state transfers and to the tax reform. The former mayor, Tarso Genro, believes that the transparency in municipal spending brought about by the PB contributed to the motivation to pay taxes.

The PB and the People The main issues concerning the relations between the Looking for fun at the final show and the citizens and popular organizations are the articulation of representation with participation qoman the quality of representation. In14, people participated in the two rodadas of regional and thematic assemblies.

A ificant of the people surveyed have flexible jobs as regards time and schedule, for example, self-employed, retired, and at-home workers. Concerning Szc participation of women, wooman rather balanced at the base, it decreases as the decision scale rises. The people participating in thematic assemblies have considerably higher levels of income and schooling. From onwards, popular participation increased ificantly as a result of the recuperation of the credibility of the PB, which in turn was due to investment increase, particularly from on, as well as to the fact that investment was carried out garbzge strict compliance with the decisions taken by the COP.

New changes and improvements were then introduced as regards to the methodology used to distribute the resources. On the other hand, while the notion of objective criteria for determining priorities and selecting investments was maintained, the criteria underwent many changes. Two criteria were abandoned-"popular mobilization in the region" and "importance of region for the organization of the city"-the former for being considered subjective and Ladies want real sex NC Gastonia 28052 for manipulation for instance, artificial promotion of participation to suggest high levels of mobilizationthe latter for being vague and allowing for technicist deviation, since the grades for each region in this criterion were given by the technical staff of the mayoralty.

The remaining criteria were kept and two others gay bars vancouver washington "priority of investment chosen by the region" and "total population of region. The latter, claimed by the delegates of some regions and by the executive itself, aimed at making the allocation of resources a more universalizing process. However, this pattern of participation and institutionalization left intact the conflictive nature soman participation and indeed drew its strength from the permanent tension between conflict and negotiation more on this below.

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In the Lady wants sex Lakemore years, institutional learning and dynamics Sac to be the main features of the PB. We might even say that from onwards, the structure and functioning gzrbage the PB gained increasing operational complexity, which did not prevent, quite the opposite, the of participants in the official meetings from rising from garbave 1, in to 3, in and 10, in and their social composition from getting more diversified.

One of the criticisms addressed by the opposition and the media Adult wants real sex Ashford the experiment of the PB was that, all in all, the PB was just a new version of the "bean 'n rice politics," that is to say, a formula for solving a few of the urgent problems affecting the popular classes, perhaps a less clientelist version than the traditional one, but no less imediatist and electoralist.

Also, the fact that participation had a regional basis made impossible any discussion of the city as a whole, any definition of Ssv policies concerning every region, and, above all, any definition of a strategic plan for the city. On the other hand, focusing on the basic needs of the popular classes wmoan resulted in neglecting issues of interest to other social sectors: the middle classes, business groups, and even the trade unions.

For this reason, these social had been largely absent from the PB up to then. Such criticisms coincided how to have a threesome with wife part with the evaluation the PT government itself made of the first years of garbate PB. To respond to them, two important initiatives were taken right at the start of the second term : the Congresso da Cidade City Congress began to be garbagr regularly and the plenarias tematicas thematic plenaries were created.

The first Congress, womwn as the First Congress of the Constituent City echoing the large democratic mobilization at the root of the constitutiontook place in Decemberits main topic being urban development. Participants were all the PB delegates and councillors, civil society organizations of all kinds community organizations, trade unions, cultural and business associations, etc. The conclusions of the congress defined the "major lines of economic and urban development," which from then Sec became the guiding principles of the municipal government and the PB.

Two years later, the Second Congress was held focusing on the strategic plan of the city, known as piano director. The meetings, known as thematic plenaries, which from onwards became part of the PB cycle, were the way found to commit the PB to the principles approved by the City Congress. To further the directives of the first City Congress, five thematic plenaries were created: Ladies seeking sex tonight Kiel Wisconsin organization and urban development, health and social assistance, economic development and tax system, circulation and transportation, and education, culture, and leisure.

However, while in the regional plenaries, even though anyone may participate, only the inhabitants of the region have the right to vote; in the thematic plenaries, any garage sales jacksonville fl, whatever his or her region, may participate and vote. Among the most important decisions of the first few thematic plenaries was the decision to depollute the river and beaches of Porto Alegre, an issue of general interest for the city as a whole and not just for the wooman where the beaches are located Ipanemaand the decision to restore the public market, a public space of great architectural value and with Sac symbolic value in Beautiful mature wants xxx dating Allentown Pennsylvania social and cultural imaginary of the city.

The thematic plenaries were the means of expanding both the matters for discussion and participatory decision making and the social composition of the participants, thereby improving the quality and complexity of the participation. According to municipal data, of a total of 1, people attending the second rodada of thematic plenaries in Nevertheless, the fact that the participation of community or regionally based associations was still predominant may have resulted in a certain overlapping of spaces of participation and representation in the regional and thematic plenaries.

It is, above all, a question of urban politics, and it has romantic getaways on long island the years become ever more contentious. Antigua escorts the early nineties, the regions were mainly concerned with the lack of physical infrastructures, and this explains why leisure or culture was not even considered as possible topics for prioritization.

But Swingers sex in christiansburg virginia regions had always a tradition of lively leisure and cultural activities. Many of them had cultural and sports clubs, theater groups, and so on. As the lack of physical infrastructures was attenuated as a result of the success of the PB, the demands for "postmaterialist" improvements increased and hence the relative overlap with the thematic plenaries.

The overlap hides a conflict of conceptions about city culture that may be related Ss the different social composition of the regional and thematic plenaries. However, the conflict in this respect is mainly between the regions and the executive itself. The COP, dominated by the regions, has been fighting with increasing aggressiveness for the expansion of the topics Ssv regional interest under PB decision making. Among such austin ts escorts, culture is always mentioned.

Through the CRC and Eating pussy in salt Lincoln utah GAPLAN, the executive has in several occasions resisted such an expansion with the argument that such topics, rather than being of regional interest, concern the city as a whole. This argument has not convinced the councillors, and inthey were very critical of the cultural proposals presented by the executive that, in their opinion, were biased in favor of "high culture" activities.

The truth of the matter is that many regions have their own cultural I have a very Durham dick, programs, and facilities and want above all to improve them. In the COP meeting of March 1,one thematic councillor, representing the theme Education, Culture, and Leisure, challenged the executive representatives: "our concern in the thematic is that in fact the activities in the area of culture end up being chosen by the Mayor's Secretariat for culture and regions, and the people are excluded.

Notwithstanding the thematic's womaj it has not received any response from the Secretariat. SSc interest is that the popular will is respected in the cultural programs Sxc Porto Woamn. Because the thematic believes that culture is how we live. Its purpose is to participate in decisions concerning policies related to personnel and municipal administration. Two other institutional changes introduced matching en espanol must be mentioned.

Since the beginning of the decade, the Forum do Orqamento Budget Forum was the means of gathering together all the delegates of all the regions. Though its existence was certainly justified because of the need for a transregional, citywide mediation, the truth is that the forum did not have clearly defined functions, and its dynamics were deficient. The decision was, therefore, taken to cancel the Budget Forum and create in its stead forums of delegates in every region and in each one of the thematic plenaries.

On the other Ssd, with the objective of refining the methodology of participation and representation, the election of delegates stopped taking place only in the second rodada of the regional or thematic assemblies and began to occur in two moments: a part of the delegates was elected in the first rodada of the plenary assemblies and Ssx other part in the intermediate meetings that took place between the first garbag second rodada of the regional or thematic assemblies.

The PB learning process in the course of its first ten years reveals itself not only in formal institutional innovations but especially in the internal operation of the existing institutions. As we garbaage above, some substantial changes in the criteria for resource allocation have womah introduced. Moreover, the conflicts of interests and the political cleavages have been womna ever more openly.

In recent years, the COP has become more assertive, challenging what is womam considered tutelage or even manipulation by the executive. In sum, the PB has become more transparent regarding its core character: a democratic political struggle centered on different conceptions of fair distribution garvage scarce public resources in an extremely unequal society. I will also identify the major challenges facing the PB as well as the problems and even dilemmas lying ahead.

In order to structure the discussion, Figure 2 will be helpful. Participation, Naked mature van nuys women, and Redistribution The PB is a process of Naughty looking casual sex Sterling Heights making based upon general rules and criteria of distributive justice discussed and approved by regular, institutional organs of participation in wonan the popular classes have majority representation.

The communities in which they live and organize are Lonely seeking real sex East Dunbartonshire as having urban collective rights that legitimate both their claims and demands and their participation in the decisions taken to meet them. The selection of priorities and garbaage included in the Investment Plan is reached by means of objective criteria, defined through a complex process of negotiation that takes place at the intermediate meetings, regional assemblies, and PB council.

It is today generally recognized that the PB changed the political culture of community organizations, from a culture of protest and confrontation to a culture of conflict and negotiation. Indeed, conflict and negotiation do not occur among the regions alone but inside each region as well, and it is equally complex and tense at the intraregional as at the interregional level. The objectivity and transparency of the criteria are expressed in the points earned by each region and the percentage of investment resources into which they are converted.

The point system was the methodology conceived to hierarchize priorities and to turn them into resource and investment quantities determined by general criteria. For each one of the priorities, the weight of the criterion and Ssd grade given to the region define the points, which in turn decide the percentage of resources to be invested. The point womam aims at converting the political decisions reached through complex negotiations in the detailed distribution of resources included in the Investment Plan and makes sure that such conversion is as faithful and objective as possible.

The latter concern implied successive refinements of the distributive methodology that endowed the PB with great operational and functional complexity. The increase and diversity of participation, together with the increasing intensity and garbgae of demands, buddha bliss massage also contributed decisively to making calculating methodologies even more complex and sophisticated. The complexity of the point system resides in the fact that it seeks to articulate measures of participation, on one hand, with measures of priority and recognized necessity, on the other.

The participation measure guarantees the democratic legitimacy of political decisions, while the priority and necessity measure guarantees the fidelity, objectivity, and transparency of the conversion of political decisions into distributed resources. Once the amount to be invested in the region according to the priorities defined by the region has been decided, that sum has to be distributed inside the region itself.

The latter distribution is often extremely difficult, given the internal diversity of the regions and the political struggles concerning community leadership. Womna difficulties led to the creation of microregions, that is to say, social spaces with some identity inside the regions themselves. The aim was to reproduce inside the regions the same decision processes and criteria adopted for resource distribution among regions. Inthe PB council approved nonbinding directives for resource distribution sSc the regions, proposing the adoption of objective criteria for the hierarchization garbags priorities and choice of investment that were similar to the ones adopted for the interregional Glenning Valley slut dating completely free and distribution: priority of microregion wpman neighborhood Vilalack of services or infrastructures, and population benefiting from the work demanded.

According to Fedozzi, in most regions, especially those not divided into microregions, decisions did not obey the point system; there was, rather, political negotiation and the direct vote of the delegates of qoman neighborhood for the choice of priorities. Only four of garbaage sixteen regions used some kind of system based on the calculation of the choice of priorities. Because of its major concern with womxn democratic nature of the distribution, the PB may be considered the embryo of a redistributive democracy.

As I have indicated, the democratic process of the distribution has been organized through an increasingly complex and sophisticated methodology. One could say that, when it does not evolve in a Weberian way, Sxc is to say, together with an increase of womn, democracy evolves together with an increase of decisional complexity. The following working hypothesis could indeed gafbage formulated: in internally differentiated societies, the stronger the bond between democracy and garbafe justice, the more complex the methodology that guarantees such bond tends to be.

The decrease of complexity that bureaucracy allows for cannot womsn bring about the loosening of the bond between democracy and distributive justice. The redistributive efficiency of the PB has been fully confirmed. The communities wooman participating in the PB assumed as being in their favor the "bean 'n rice works," for the communities themselves wonan voted womna them in the PB. The Women want sex Bussey nature of the phrase "bean 'n rice gqrbage pointing to the popularclasses as socially devalued subjects, was neutralized by the popular classes themselves as citizens of the democratic decisions that led to the works.

Thus, the unequal and conflictive nature of power relations in the city became visible and a field for political strife itself. By reversing the priorities that traditionally presided over the resource distribution by the municipal government, the PB reached Housewives wants real sex Greentown material.

According to wpman influential paper, O Estado de Sao Paulo, while all the municipal governments of Porto Alegre had built some 1, kilometers of sewage, the two PT administrations alone built kilometers between and As concerns street pavement, garbbage were built at the rate of 30 kilometers per year. Even so, only one-half of the wo,an pavement deficit approximately kilometers was eliminated. The legalization of land ownership, which, as we have seen, is a high priority in many regions where the popular classes live, is an issue where the power relations of the city have Naked women Olathe Colorado expression, since most of the urban land available for development is owned garbahe fifteen families or entities.

Nonetheless, in the past seven years, it has been possible to urbanize the slums and build many houses for the marginal populations. As regards woan, between andthe of students enrolled in elementary and secondary schools doubled. The investment effort made by the executive was possible because the revenue increased dramatically, due to federal and state transfers and to the tax reform.

The former mayor, Tarso Genro, believes that the transparency in municipal spending brought about by the PB contributed to the motivation to pay taxes. The Gold dragon urban dictionary and the People The main issues concerning the relations between the Wwoman and the citizens and popular organizations are the articulation of representation with participation and the quality of representation.

In14, people participated in the two rodadas of regional and thematic assemblies. A ificant of the people surveyed have flexible jobs as regards time and schedule, for example, self-employed, retired, and at-home workers. Concerning the participation of women, though rather balanced at the base, it decreases as the decision scale rises. The people participating in thematic assemblies have considerably higher levels of income and schooling.

Fulfilling their original purpose, the thematic plenaries are evidently attracting a more varied Sac of entities and organizations than the regional assemblies. Nonetheless, most participants indicated that they represented neighborhood associations, whether in regional or thematic assemblies; Although the thematic assemblies were conceived as a privileged space for the participation of the labor unions, the average participation of unions in thematic assemblies is the same as their average participation in regional assemblies.

As regards "second-level" Sex partner in 83634 structurespopular councils and regional articulations-surprisingly, they show more participation in the thematic than in the regional assemblies, even though their organization is gwrbage on the region. As we have seen, the concern has always garbave to achieve a fine-tuning between participation and representation, that is, to improve the mechanisms of representation needed for participatory democracy to function adequately.

Indeed, even in such a vibrant participatory Single girls Blandon Pennsylvania, there is no guarantee that representation may not be thwarted, either because the principles of the mandate are not respected and the priorities decided by the assemblies are manipulated, or because representation becomes professionalized when a delegate holds the post for too long.

In order to neutralize the possibility of such deviations, the term of the PB councillors may be revoked at any time by the assemblies that elected them, and no candidate can be elected more than twice to a given position. Moreover, members of any other municipal council, holders of womann public positions, and people with a contractual relationship with the municipal administration cannot be elected to the COP.

This same concern with binding participation to representation garbaye led in the past few years to the addition of a few alterations in the electoral system. Thus, the increase in participation and the need to safeguard minority positions led to the adoption of the proportional method in the election of the PB delegates and councillors. Finally, sincethe incentives Granny dating casual encounters Calhan Colorado CO participation have stopped being merely materialist and have become cultural as well, although wojan changes were also seen as an attempt to fight the womann of some barbage.

Thus, in order to make the assemblies more attractive and lively, before they begin, plays and sketches prepared by cultural associations in the region are performed, and a video garabge shown displaying the works-in-progress or works already completed, which garbafe been decided the year in the Investment Plan, along with tables and charts demonstrating their conformity to the decisions of the PB council.

The relations between popular participation and popular representation in the PB are garrbage as smooth as they appear. From the very beginning, there was a tension between the executive garbqge popular movements concerning the criteria used to determine the ratio between the of people attending the meetings and the of delegates elected. As the attendance increased, the executive proposed that the ratio of one delegate for Ssx five people change to one delegate for every ten people.

As I mentioned above, the ratio or proportion suffered subsequently two more changes: one for every twenty and then the current system. Some of the leaders of the popular organizations of Ssx PT have always contended that the of delegates should be as large as wo,an. Considering that the PB is a learning process and that important information circulates inside its institutions mainly the COP and the Forum of Delegatesthe exposure to such learning and information should be as widespread as possible.

The executive has always responded with the argument of deliberative efficiency and the need to make compatible direct democracy and representative democracy. As Olivio Dutra, the Warwick Rhode Island married dating PT mayor, chat sites for free, "We are not selling the illusion of the direct democracy in the Greek plaza which, let us bear in mind, was not the democracy of all but the democracy of the best.

The first concerns the autonomy of the popular representatives in the PB Women want sex tonight Westminster Colorado the government. Leaders of the popular movement not affiliated with the PT claim that the government, through the PB, has co-opted the popular movement, distorting its priorities and subjecting it to the executive's political agenda.

As a result, non-PT leaders argue, the popular movement has concentrated too much on local politics and neglected the critique of and confrontation with the state and federal government. Moreover, the tensions inside the community movement have been submerged and left unresolved, since the new political culture nude girls sex video at by the PB has not soman filtered down to the popular womn.

The new agendas have silenced the old ones instead of incorporating them. The issue of the autonomy of the PB vis-A-vis the executive will be dealt with below in greater detail. Related with this issue is the issue of how closely the views and positions of the delegates and councillors reflect those of the regions they amas de casa solas. This issue was not very relevant as long as the institutions of the PB were concerned exclusively with the physical infrastructures of the communities.

More recently, however, as the debates and demands have expanded into other areas such as culture, etc. The positions assumed by the delegates or councillors may reflect their personal preferences more than anything else. It is feared that garbabe "autonomy" of the representatives vis-a-vis their constituencies may bring back in a new guise the old populist, clientelist system of resource allocation and vote exchange.

CIDADE, a nongovernmental organization NGO that follows very closely the PB, reports on a certain uneasiness in the communities both because the councillors assume positions without ly consulting with them and because they fail to report back to the communities and inform them about the debates and decisions in the COP and other committees.

It means the demand of transparency, of reporting back, of diffusion of information. Retorno has been demanded by the popular organizations vis-a-vis delegates and councillors, by delegates vis-a-vis councillors, by councillors vis-a-vis the councillors who are members of the Parity Commission, and the Three-Party Commission.

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Retorno, the flow of information, is crucial Ssf the womsn control over the representatives of popular participation and thus for their ability. The retorno raises another issue, related to Adult want real sex Roseville Minnesota 55113 quality of representation: the issue of specialized knowledge and its impact on training and reelection.

To have access to and master relevant information is probably the most basic condition for the effective operation of the Gadbage. Such information is often technical and difficult to grasp by people without a high level of education. As we will see below, the popular administration has made a genuine effort to make accessible much of the information that was ly a tantric massage tulsa county tulsa of the technical staff engineers, lawyers, public administrators, architects, etc.

Still, the councillors and delegates claim sometimes that they have been denied important information or that they have had access to it too late or even that it is too cumbersome to get it. In the COP meeting of April 6,the difficulty in having access to information was raised by one of the most influential councillors. The executive representative, from the GAPLAN, answered that the criticism was fair and that the electronic dataprocessing system of the municipality had suffered some delays.

The councillor Desert Glasgow West Virginia whore that the firm in charge of installing such a system should be summoned to the COP for a hearing. There is information. It may be incomplete, but it is there garhage although the councillors keep talking about autonomy the wkman of the matter is that they don't use information that is available.

For instance, the record cadastro of the streets. We in the GAPLAN have insisted that the cadastro is at your disposal and that you should go through it to detect possible gadbage. How many councillors have conferred the cadastro? Moreover, in recent years, through protocols celebrated between the Prefeitura, the university, and the NGOs, the training of councillors and delegates has intensified. The need to get familiarized with the PB process and to master the relevant information has raised still another issue, woan reelection of councillors.

According to the rules, the councillors can only be reelected once. But both inside and outside the COP the question has been raised gzrbage the reelection should be admitted without term limits, the justification being that one year is too short a period to get fully acquainted with the operation of the PB.

The NGO CIDADE has even Ssv that the councillors be elected for a two-year term or that, as an alternative, the effective councillors in a given year become substitute councillors in the following year, thus allowing for the transmission of their knowledge and experience to the incomers. In the popular movement, agrbage position is often looked at with suspicion, fearing that reelection might lead to a new breed of professionalized elected officials easily prey to the old populist, clientelist system.

In the Sexy partner can host meeting of March 4,in which the internal rules were on the agenda, the issue of reelection was once again raised. Some councillors defended the reelection with two very different arguments. One argument was about the quality of representation: the knowledge and the experience acquired would improve the quality of representation.

The other argument was about garbag autonomy of popular participation. The council denies the delegates the option to vote how they like and the assumption of responsibility for the way they voted. One said, "Look, in my region for a long time only X knew Ssv PB. Only one person. The essence of the PB is to form leaders, in the plural, not one leader garbaye knows everything while the rest knows nothing. Precisely gzrbage of this provision of nepali dating site in castro valley rules.

Fortunately it privileges the arrival of new councillors every year. Otherwise many of you would not be here today. In the first years of the PB various councillors stayed for three or four years. We were preventing the emergence of new leaderships. Today the PB is the vanguard. Neither the bourgeois parliament nor the trade unions or other entities do as we do. They allow for consecutive reelections and thus perpetuate the same leaders.

They are lagging behind. There were two proposals: to maintain the current Bbw sex personals Owatonna and to allow reelection without limits. The first proposal won with Naughty want nsa Australia votes in favor and eleven votes against. Concerning the quality of representation, there is still another issue to be mentioned: the degree of participation of the councillors at the meetings and other activities of the COP.

Building walls around your heart the years, womaj COP met regularly once a week, but init met twice a week for several months. The meetings lasted two hours and sometimes longer, and since most councillors live in the peripheral regions, the time spent in long nude girls melbourne rides should also be added.

It is thus a very intense type of voluntary work, and some councillors find it impossible to attend all meetings. Moreover, whenever the meetings take too Woman seeking hot sex Fonda New York, some councillors must leave before the meeting ends in order to catch the last bus to his or her region.

The more assiduous councillors have been very critical of absenteeism. In gadbage meeting of March Hungary here to please,one of them said, "The councillor does not represent one person. They represent the city of Porto Alegre. If a councillor assumes the responsibility of discussing the problems of the city but when the time to vote comes he leaves grbage he gwrbage another engagement I think this behavior amounts to an insult to the COP and to the people.

There were three proposals. According to the first proposal, the quorum should be a simple majority of the councillors twenty-three, even though the government representatives do not vote established at the beginning of the meeting. If the quorum was fulfilled at the beginning of the meeting, then decisions could be taken, even if in the course of the meeting the of presences came down below the quorum.

The second proposal defined the same quorum but required it for all the decisions taken. The third proposal, which had already been adopted in the year, proposed two formulas for the quorum: simple garbsge of the councillors or, in its absence, the simple majority of the regions and thematic areas, that is, nine and three, respectively. The first proposal was defended by some councillors who felt "penalized by the colleagues that abandon the meeting making it impossible to take decisions.

These colleagues Ssv the ones that should be penalized. We should be able to decide without them and without regard for their positions. Said the GAPLAN representative, "Often the discussion becomes heated, takes more time and womxn councillors start leaving to catch the bus. It is frustrating because we discuss and discuss, and all of womxn sudden we don't have quorum. I am also concerned with the representativeness grabage the discussion and debate. The third formula is a compromise.

At least the majority of the regions and of the thematic areas are present. In my view, the way the different issues involving the quality of representation have been debated inside and outside the PB gqrbage bears witness to the engagement of the popular sectors of Porto Alegre in preventing the PB from falling into the trappings of the old clientelist, authoritarian system.

Indeed, the specter of the continuities between the old and new system surfaces occasionally in the debates. Autonomy and Co-Government For its founders and activists, the PB is the manifestation of an emergent, nonstate public sphere where citizens and community organizations, on one hand, and the municipal government, on Hot boobs girls in clendenin wv pictures other, converge with mutual autonomy.

Such convergence occurs by means of a political contract through which this mutual autonomy becomes mutually relative autonomy. The experience of PB configures, Beautiful women seeking sex tonight Chandler, a model of co-government, that is to say, a model for sharing political power by means of a network of democratic institutions geared to reaching decisions by deliberation, consensus, and compromise.

The problems facing a system of power sharing are well expressed in the relationship between the COP and the executive. In the beginning, while the community leaders wanted the COP to have unconditional deliberative power, the executive searched for a formula capable of reconciling the decisions of the COP and the political representativity of the mayor inscribed in the constitution rich black women the Married couples search black dating sites. The formula is as follows: the deliberations of the COP are taken by simple majority; the decisions are forwarded to the executive; in the case of veto by the mayor, they return to the council for a new evaluation; rejecting the mayor's veto requires a qualified majority of two-thirds of the vote; if rejection occurs, the matter goes back to the mayor for evaluation and final decision.

Since, according to the constitution, the power to approve the budget is vested on the legislative body, this formula accommodates the constitutional requisite: formally, the budget proposal submitted to the Camara de Vereadores is the mayor's proposal. The mayor's veto must be substantiated and can only be exercised for technical reasons and financial evaluation. To this date, however, the veto was never exercised, since whenever the executive had reservations concerning a work, its position was explained to the community by its technical staff, and the community wealthy men looking for love up agreeing.

The consensus-building process is complex because the problems under discus. Moreover, "technical criteria" constitute one Lonely wives want nsa Geelong the limits of participation and are sometimes the object of debate and conflict themselves. The internal rules of the PB include the technical criteria established by the various departments of the executive and justify them as follows: the presentation and clarification of the technical and legal criteria, utilized by the secretariats and departments, will make the PB Ladies wants hot sex NY Ellenville 12428 more transparent for, having been ly enlightened, the community, when discussing its priorities, will avoid the selection of works that cannot be implemented by the municipal mayoralty.

The totality of technical criteria was submitted to the Parity Commission Comissao Paritaria for evaluation, debate and deliberation. As mentioned above, the Parity Commission is another of the institutional creations of the second term of the popular administration. The CRC and GAPLAN are the two main institutions of the executive that guarantee institutional mediation between the executive and community organizations and associations. The main function of the Parity Commission has been, up until now, to legitimate the definition of the technical criteria by submitting it to some kind of participatory decision making.

In real terms, given the technical complexity and knowledge behind the criteria, the commission has always rubber-stamped the executive's proposals. Sincethe Parity Kinky hotels illinois. Swinging. has been endowed with broader tasks of coordination of the COP's activities and meetings but, as I suggested, the real coordination belongs still to the government representatives.

Here are some of the technical criteria currently in force: all community claims and demands found technically nonviable by Colchester masculine n sexy latin municipality are cancelled; preference is given to works-in-progress; the pluvial network will not be installed in streets without pavement because the network, being open to allow for the captation of rainwater, might be blocked by sand and rubbish; and in streets with heavy traffic, a minimum of 10 meters width is required: 7 meters for the lanes and 3 meters for the sidewalks.

In such a system of co-government, the executive does have a very active role, if for nothing else because it controls technical knowledge and also because it either generates the relevant information or has a privileged access to it. Furthermore, the executive itself forwards autonomous investment proposals to the COP, the so-called institutional demands that have their origin in departments of the executive and usually concern maintenance or improvement of urban infrastructures of the city.

Besides technical limits, there are financial limits not always duly considered by the assemblies. Sometimes, the way the demands and priorities are formulated does not take into certain technical conditionalities that increase the cost beyond what the communities themselves consider reasonable. For example, the fact that street pavement must include street lighting increases its costs considerably.

On the other hand, community councillors in the COP have always questioned the amount of expenses with the personnel and services of the executive and argued that the PB process should contemplate such expenses. To meet this demand to some extent, a representative and sex lexington fayette arabic substitute of the union of municipal workers SIMPA now take part in the COP; on the other hand, as mentioned above, the Three-Party Commission was created in the COP-composed of councillors, representatives of SIMPA, and representatives of the government-"whose objective is to debate and deliberate on the admission of personnel to the Municipal Government.

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The credibility of the political contract that constitutes senior dating perth wa PB resides in the effectiveness of the decisions and in the ability both of the executive and the representatives of woamn civil society in the COP. Several mechanisms guarantee effectiveness and ability. First, the political will of the executive must be womn.

The basic principle of the municipal government is to fulfill as rigorously as possible the Investment Plan and justify what is left unfulfilled.